Ravenna port is predominantly a discharging port, devoted to the import. If one excepts the containers traffic, there is  no substantial export activity here. Ravenna port is well known to all P&I Clubs since the early 1970s because of the frequent claims issued by local receivers. The changes of port’s core business over the years have modified the nature of the customary claims. Up to the end of the last century, this port had developed thanks to the import of agriproducts and claims were daily   issued for alleged overheating, surface moulds (hold and cargo sweat), infestation by parassites, etc. Luckily, receivers’ attitude has somehow changed in the last 10 years, because of different insurance covers, of the increase of insurance franchises, etc. Loss prevention too had an important role and the employment of modern ships, along with a deeper knowledge of the   most common issues related to the carriage of specific goods, had contributed to lessen claims’ frequency. A further positive tendency that has substantially contributed to reduce claims’ frequency is a ship’s Command acceptance of a “commercial” Master’s role, which clearly exceeds the simple task to safely bring the vessel to the discharging port. However, claims are still frequent in Italy. Nowadays, the most common protests that a Shipmaster may receive are: Steel products: Generic mechanical damages (h.r. and wrapped goods)  Atmospheric rust Allegations of bad stowage (steel coils and plates)  Deformation / waving (steel plates, profiles, etc.)  Deformation / ovalization (especially for pre-painted coils)    Bulk agriproducts:  Surface moulding by moisture condensation /alleged lack of ventilation  Spontaneous heating of mass core or surface  Heat transmission from fuel D/B tanks or E.R. bulkhead  Shortage in weight according to shore scales  Bulk fertilizers: Contamination by foreign bodies (e.g. holds paint/rust scales) Discoloration of bottom layers (frequent in urea cargoes) Shortage in weight according to shore scales 
P&I Ravenna